Word is irrevocably tied to the Windows printer driver. It needs a printer driver available in order to format the document correctly. If there is no printer driver installed or you have a printer driver which cannot use fonts set as default, such as the Generic / Text only driver, as shown below, only a token selection of fonts will be shown in the font drop down menu - as above.
Change the default printer to a printer driver that can use fonts, such as the Epson ink jet available on the PC used in this example (see below) and the fonts immediately become available.
In order to format the document Word must be able to see a printer driver. The printer itself doesn't have to be present, but the driver does.
A common complaint, but one that is easily fixed.